Security

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<span style="color:#ab0000; font-weight:bold;">** Note: For the most up-to-date information please see the [http://2010.igem.org/Security Security page] on the [http://2010.igem.org iGEM 2010 wiki]. **</span>
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<p align=center><b>Resources</b></p>
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<p><b>People</b></p>
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/4/46/Piers1_60per.jpg">
<ul>
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<li>Piers Millet</li>
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<li><B>Piers Millet</b></li>
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<li>Title</li>
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<li>BWC ISU</li>
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<li>Email</li>
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<li><a href="mailto:bwc@unog.ch">bwc@unog.ch</a></li>
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<li>Other contact info.</li>
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<li><a href="http://www.unog.ch/bwc">www.unog.ch/bwc</a></li>
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<p>The BWC ISU is the closest thing to an international organisation to ensure biology is used solely for beneficial purposes. It is housed in the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs in Geneva and, as Deputy Head, Piers helps States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention ban the hostile use of biology. As a microbiologist and chartered biologist, Piers supports the technical aspects of the ISU's work.</p>
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<p><b>Reports</b></p>
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<a target="_blank" href="http://www.synbiosafe.eu/uploads///pdf/Synthetic%20Genomics%20Options%20for%20Governance.pdf">
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/4/4a/SB-Venter_CSIS_MIT.JPG"></a>
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<b>Synthetic Genomics: Options for Governance</b> by the J Craig Venter Institute, CSIS and MIT, October 2007
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<br><br><br><br>
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<a target="_blank" href="http://www.synbiosafe.eu/uploads///pdf/Synbiosafe-Biosecurity_awareness_in_Europe_Kelle.pdf">
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/a/ab/SB-Biosec_Awareness_in_Europe.JPG"></a>
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<b>Synthetic Biology and Biosecurity Awareness in Europe</b> by SynBioSafe, November 2007
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<br><br><br><br>
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<a target="_blank" href="http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/organisation/policies/reviews/scientific_areas/0806_synthetic_biology.pdf">
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/f/fd/SB-Soc_%26_eth.JPG"></a>
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<b>Synthetic Biology: Social and Ethical Challanges</b> by the Institute for Science and Society, May 2008
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<br><br><br><br>
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<a target="_blank" href="http://www.synbioproject.org/process/assets/files/5999/synbio1final.pdf?">
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/a/ab/SB-US_%26_European_Press_Coverage.JPG"></a>
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<b>Trends in American and European Coverage of Synthetic Biology</b> by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scolars, 1 November 2008
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<br><br><br>
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<a target="_blank" href="http://www.synbiosafe.eu/uploads///pdf/iasb_report_biosecurity_syntheticbiology.pdf">
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/3/32/SB-IASB.JPG"></a>
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<b>Technical solutions for biosecurity in synthetic biology</b> by the Industry Association Synthetic Biology, 2008
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<br><br><br><br>
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<a target="_blank" href="http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Synthetic_biology.pdf">
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<img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/5/5a/RAE-SB.JPG"></a>
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<b>Synthetic Biology: Scope Applications and Implications</b> by the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, May 2009
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<br><br><br><br><hr>
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<p><b>Other Resources</b></p>
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<b>Why Secure Modern Biology?</B>
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<p> This is a 30 minute video arguing why we need to secure synthetic biology. It was filmed at SB4.0 in Hong Kong in 2008. It includes a short quiz that demonstrates how hard it is to spot the use of biology for hostile purposes. It looks at some of the problems with trying to secure biology through top-down governmental approaches and the need to find a community-based response to this shared problem.</p>
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<h3>Security in iGEM</h3>
 
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<td width=155 align=center><img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/6/67/Bio_wordle.jpg"></td>
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<td width=135 align=center><img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/b/bd/Zero-small.jpg"></td>
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<td width=135 align=center><img src="http://2009.igem.org/wiki/images/b/b3/Security_fence_-_small.jpg"></td>
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<b>"Biology should be more fun. It should be about exploring the world around us. We should want to get out there and do things. We should be able to do things more easily. Securing biology should be something that helps us do that. It cannot be something that gets in the way."</b>
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<p>Scientific research continues to bring us new and unexpected knowledge, technologies and approaches. Synthetic biology, being on the very cutting edge of what is possible, promises unprecedented opportunities for health, wealth and better living. But science and technology can be used for destructive purposes as well as for constructive ones. Refining our control of biology opens up chances to intentionally cause harm to humans, animals, plants and the environment that just did not exist before. That’s why it is important now, more than ever, for us to think about how others might use what we are doing in ways we would not be happy with.</p>
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<div id="preventing_malign_use">
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<b>Preventing Malign Use </b>
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<br><br>
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Securing biology is not a simple task. It is not something those outside biology could, or should, do alone. Equally, this is not something that biologists can do by themselves (our focus, as the name implies is on the biology). This is a truly interdisciplinary problem - one that means we will need to work together, in new ways, with new partners, to find an approach that provides benefits for all. Given the interdisciplinary nature of synthetic biology, and the experience the community has in drawing in people from different backgrounds, we are well placed to position ourselves in the vanguard of those thinking about how science interacts with society and to help write the rules which will govern this ‘century of biology’.
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<br>
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As a participant in iGEM, there are three things you can do right now to help us secure our science:
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<br><br>
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<ol>
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<li>Include something in your project description and presentations that demonstrates that you have thought about how others could misuse your work</li>
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<li>Contribute to community discussions on what needs to go into a code against the use of our science for hostile purposes (see A Community Response)</li>
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<li>Look into what security provisions, such as laws and regulations, are already in place in your country (see Working within the Law)</li>
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<div id="shaping_the_future">
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<b>Shaping the Future</b>
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<br><br>
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<p>Ensuring that biology is used safely, securely and constructively should be of concern to us all. This is a challenge we will have to face together. To do this we will need to figure out what we want biological engineering to look like, what we are prepared for others to do with it, and just how we want to tackle security issues. This page provides a space to focus on these issues and for you to help shape what should be done to stop those with a malign intent. There is a real opportunity here for iGEM and those participating in iGEM, not only to shape how they will deal with security issues but to drive their national and even international processes. You can make a real difference in securing biology – in your lab, in your country and across the world.</p>
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<div id="do_no_harm">
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<b>A Committment to Do No harm</b>
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<br><br>
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<p>There is a strong feeling amongst those involved with iGEM, as well as the broader synthetic biology community, that the work we do should be used only for the benefit of humankind. It should not be used to do harm or to make weapons. This understanding has prompted some to think about what the community can do to ensure that this never happens. One important step would be a code or personal declaration that everyone involved (from the organisers, through supervisors and advisors, to team members and even the mascots!) would commit themselves to. This helps to ensure that we think about security as something that does directly involve us, is part of our project and can be dealt with in a way that helps us to get on and have some fun engineering biology.</p>
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<b>A Community Response</b>
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<b>Areas a code might address:</b>
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<li>An <b>introduction</b> about why there is a code</li>
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<li>A reminder of the importance of <b>personal responsibility</b> and that as your career progresses so do your responsibilities</li>
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<li>A commitment to <b>get informed</b> about principles and practices designed to prevent hostile use</li>
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<li>A commitment to find out about and <b>comply with regulatory frameworks</b>, such as international, national and institutional laws and guidelines</li>
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<li>An obligation to <b>do no harm</b></li>
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<li>A requirement to look at the <b>reasonably foreseeable consequences</b> of your activities</li>
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<li>A commitment <b>not to ignore possible breaches</b> of the code by others</li>
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<li>An obligation to <b>act responsibly</b> in case you stumble across something that does not easily sit with the aims of the code</li>
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<li>Some link between the pursuit of <b>science and the best interests of the society</b> in which it is pursued </li>
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Any code that would commit community members to do no harm would be first and foremost the property of this community. There is a solid body of work dedicated to the sorts of things that might be included in such an effort (see the Resources section). But nothing should be taken for granted – the content of our code would be up to us to decide. Here are some of the areas that a code might cover. Are these accurate? Can you think of anything else that should be on this list? Is there too much and we should get rid of some (if so, what)? Is there any point to working on a code? Here is where you can get involved – we are hoping that you will have something to say. You can answer these questions or add anything else you want to say (you know the drill) in the comments section below.
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<div id="working_withi_the_law">
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<b>Working Within the Law</b>
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<br><br>
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<p>There is an international treaty that prohibits the use of biology for hostile or malign purposes. If you use biology to do harm you will be breaking international law.</p>
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<br>
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<p>Many countries also have their own laws about using biology in this way. They are increasingly backed up with regulations and guidelines that are relevant to the day to day functioning of a laboratory. It is important that we are all familiar with the rules that cover our work. Whilst we are commonly taught how we should work safely, we are less often taught how to work securely.</p>
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<br>
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<p>This section provides a gateway to details of some of these national regulatory frameworks. We hoping that you will use this to make sure you know all you need to know about staying out of trouble. But we are hoping that you will also be able to help us improve this resource. We have provided some information on some of the measures in some of the countries with the largest participation in iGEM. We know this is not a list of all relevant measures in all countries that participate. Here is where you come in. Is there something missing you know applies in your country? If so why not add some information? If you don't know what is in place, why not find out and let us know? That would really help future teams, your professional conduct and the community as a whole.</p>
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<i>China</i>
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<ul>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/BBCCCC514AA386A3C1257355003AA13D/$file/BWC_NID_Report-070912.htm#chi">Laws in China relevant to work with biological agents</a></li>
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</ul>
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<br>
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<i>Switzerland</i>
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<ul>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/BBCCCC514AA386A3C1257355003AA13D/$file/BWC_NID_Report-070912.htm#swi">Laws in Switzerland relevant to work with biological agents</a></li>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/disarmament.nsf/(httpPages)/FD59A71FC0B3FAF8C12574780052F81A?OpenDocument">Swiss arrangements for biosafety and biosecurity</a></li>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/disarmament.nsf/(httpPages)/6175389B1B34CBA6C125747800540E12?OpenDocument">Swiss arrangements for the oversight of science</a></li>
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</ul>
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<i>United Kingdom</i>
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<ul>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/BBCCCC514AA386A3C1257355003AA13D/$file/BWC_NID_Report-070912.htm#uk">Laws in the UK relevant to work with biological agents</a></li>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/disarmament.nsf/(httpPages)/FD59A71FC0B3FAF8C12574780052F81A?OpenDocument">UK arrangements for biosafety and biosecurity</a></li>
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</ul>
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<i>United States</i>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/80256EDD006B8954/(httpAssets)/BBCCCC514AA386A3C1257355003AA13D/$file/BWC_NID_Report-070912.htm#us">Laws in the US relevant to work with biological agents</a></li>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/disarmament.nsf/(httpPages)/FD59A71FC0B3FAF8C12574780052F81A?OpenDocument">US arrangements for biosafety and biosecurity</a></li>
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<li><a target="_blank" href="http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/disarmament.nsf/(httpPages)/6175389B1B34CBA6C125747800540E12?OpenDocument">US arrangements for the oversight of science</a></li>
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<div id="got_questions">
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<b>Got Questions?</b>
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<br><br>
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<p>If there is anything here that has caught your interest, infuriated you and sparked any other reason you would like to get in touch, then please do. You can leave comments, thoughts and suggestions below but also feel free to contact us directly if you want something a little more interactive. </p>
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<p align="right"><i>Images in top banner used under a Creative Commons license</i></p>
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<p align="right">Photo Credits (from left to right)</P>
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Latest revision as of 19:14, 11 January 2010

** Note: For the most up-to-date information please see the Security page on the iGEM 2010 wiki. **

Resources

People

The BWC ISU is the closest thing to an international organisation to ensure biology is used solely for beneficial purposes. It is housed in the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs in Geneva and, as Deputy Head, Piers helps States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention ban the hostile use of biology. As a microbiologist and chartered biologist, Piers supports the technical aspects of the ISU's work.



Reports

Synthetic Genomics: Options for Governance by the J Craig Venter Institute, CSIS and MIT, October 2007



Synthetic Biology and Biosecurity Awareness in Europe by SynBioSafe, November 2007



Synthetic Biology: Social and Ethical Challanges by the Institute for Science and Society, May 2008



Trends in American and European Coverage of Synthetic Biology by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scolars, 1 November 2008


Technical solutions for biosecurity in synthetic biology by the Industry Association Synthetic Biology, 2008



Synthetic Biology: Scope Applications and Implications by the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, May 2009




Other Resources

Why Secure Modern Biology?

This is a 30 minute video arguing why we need to secure synthetic biology. It was filmed at SB4.0 in Hong Kong in 2008. It includes a short quiz that demonstrates how hard it is to spot the use of biology for hostile purposes. It looks at some of the problems with trying to secure biology through top-down governmental approaches and the need to find a community-based response to this shared problem.

"Biology should be more fun. It should be about exploring the world around us. We should want to get out there and do things. We should be able to do things more easily. Securing biology should be something that helps us do that. It cannot be something that gets in the way."

Scientific research continues to bring us new and unexpected knowledge, technologies and approaches. Synthetic biology, being on the very cutting edge of what is possible, promises unprecedented opportunities for health, wealth and better living. But science and technology can be used for destructive purposes as well as for constructive ones. Refining our control of biology opens up chances to intentionally cause harm to humans, animals, plants and the environment that just did not exist before. That’s why it is important now, more than ever, for us to think about how others might use what we are doing in ways we would not be happy with.


Preventing Malign Use

Securing biology is not a simple task. It is not something those outside biology could, or should, do alone. Equally, this is not something that biologists can do by themselves (our focus, as the name implies is on the biology). This is a truly interdisciplinary problem - one that means we will need to work together, in new ways, with new partners, to find an approach that provides benefits for all. Given the interdisciplinary nature of synthetic biology, and the experience the community has in drawing in people from different backgrounds, we are well placed to position ourselves in the vanguard of those thinking about how science interacts with society and to help write the rules which will govern this ‘century of biology’.

As a participant in iGEM, there are three things you can do right now to help us secure our science:

  1. Include something in your project description and presentations that demonstrates that you have thought about how others could misuse your work
  2. Contribute to community discussions on what needs to go into a code against the use of our science for hostile purposes (see A Community Response)
  3. Look into what security provisions, such as laws and regulations, are already in place in your country (see Working within the Law)


Shaping the Future

Ensuring that biology is used safely, securely and constructively should be of concern to us all. This is a challenge we will have to face together. To do this we will need to figure out what we want biological engineering to look like, what we are prepared for others to do with it, and just how we want to tackle security issues. This page provides a space to focus on these issues and for you to help shape what should be done to stop those with a malign intent. There is a real opportunity here for iGEM and those participating in iGEM, not only to shape how they will deal with security issues but to drive their national and even international processes. You can make a real difference in securing biology – in your lab, in your country and across the world.


A Committment to Do No harm

There is a strong feeling amongst those involved with iGEM, as well as the broader synthetic biology community, that the work we do should be used only for the benefit of humankind. It should not be used to do harm or to make weapons. This understanding has prompted some to think about what the community can do to ensure that this never happens. One important step would be a code or personal declaration that everyone involved (from the organisers, through supervisors and advisors, to team members and even the mascots!) would commit themselves to. This helps to ensure that we think about security as something that does directly involve us, is part of our project and can be dealt with in a way that helps us to get on and have some fun engineering biology.


A Community Response

Areas a code might address:
  • An introduction about why there is a code
  • A reminder of the importance of personal responsibility and that as your career progresses so do your responsibilities
  • A commitment to get informed about principles and practices designed to prevent hostile use
  • A commitment to find out about and comply with regulatory frameworks, such as international, national and institutional laws and guidelines
  • An obligation to do no harm
  • A requirement to look at the reasonably foreseeable consequences of your activities
  • A commitment not to ignore possible breaches of the code by others
  • An obligation to act responsibly in case you stumble across something that does not easily sit with the aims of the code
  • Some link between the pursuit of science and the best interests of the society in which it is pursued
Any code that would commit community members to do no harm would be first and foremost the property of this community. There is a solid body of work dedicated to the sorts of things that might be included in such an effort (see the Resources section). But nothing should be taken for granted – the content of our code would be up to us to decide. Here are some of the areas that a code might cover. Are these accurate? Can you think of anything else that should be on this list? Is there too much and we should get rid of some (if so, what)? Is there any point to working on a code? Here is where you can get involved – we are hoping that you will have something to say. You can answer these questions or add anything else you want to say (you know the drill) in the comments section below.


Working Within the Law

There is an international treaty that prohibits the use of biology for hostile or malign purposes. If you use biology to do harm you will be breaking international law.


Many countries also have their own laws about using biology in this way. They are increasingly backed up with regulations and guidelines that are relevant to the day to day functioning of a laboratory. It is important that we are all familiar with the rules that cover our work. Whilst we are commonly taught how we should work safely, we are less often taught how to work securely.


This section provides a gateway to details of some of these national regulatory frameworks. We hoping that you will use this to make sure you know all you need to know about staying out of trouble. But we are hoping that you will also be able to help us improve this resource. We have provided some information on some of the measures in some of the countries with the largest participation in iGEM. We know this is not a list of all relevant measures in all countries that participate. Here is where you come in. Is there something missing you know applies in your country? If so why not add some information? If you don't know what is in place, why not find out and let us know? That would really help future teams, your professional conduct and the community as a whole.


China
Switzerland
United Kingdom
United States

Got Questions?

If there is anything here that has caught your interest, infuriated you and sparked any other reason you would like to get in touch, then please do. You can leave comments, thoughts and suggestions below but also feel free to contact us directly if you want something a little more interactive.



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