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General Questions

Safe E. coli

Cellular Receptors

Q. What are the binding affinities for each receptor?
A. Even our viro terminator can not bind the virus well, it can also build up the local concentration of virus, and then have the ability to attract microphage.


Q. What does the genome of HIV consist of?
A. The full HIV genome is encoded on one long strand of RNA. (In a free virus particle, there are actually two separate strands of RNA, but they're exactly the same!) This is the form it has when it is a free virus particle. When the virus is integrated into the host's DNA genome (as a provirus) then its information too is encoded in DNA. (from

Q. What is the structure of HIV particle?
A. There are two main parts, essentially: the inner core, and the viral membrane. The viral membrane encloses the particle, and has about nine or ten gp160 spikes embedded in it which are involved in binding and membrane fusion when the virus particle attaches to a cell. The inner core is the "payload" of the virus, containing the viral RNA and some enzymes (reverse transcriptase, protease, integrase). (from

Q. How dose the HIV enters a human cell?
A. HIV enter macrophage and CD4+ T cell of human cell by the adsorption of their glycoprtein on the traget receptor. Afetr adsorption finished, virus envelope fusion with membrane of target cell, then genome of HIV can entry the target cell.

Q. What happens after the HIV enters a human cell?
A. The first step of the HIV life cycle is binding to the cell membrane, followed by membrane fusion, to get the virus particle's contents into the host cell. Then follows reverse transcription of the HIV's genome from RNA into DNA, and its integration into the host genome. Once integrated the virus can lie low in human cells, or can begin the production of new viral RNA and proteins, turning the cell into a HIV factory. This production is followed by assembly, budding, and maturation, in which the new HIV particles are packaged up and sent out to infect new cells. (from (Also see the Replication Cycle of HIV at

Integrin (various viruses)

Sialic acid (Influenza)

Antibodies (Specific chosen viruses)

Host cell and signal transduction


in vivo questions

After clinical tests

Q. How can we control the number of E. coli in our blood?
A. We will make the E. coli not be able to replicate.

Q. What is the dosage required for say a person with flu?
A. This is a question for sometime between in vivo testing and clinical trials.