Team:Groningen/Brainstorm/Rainbow Bacteria


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Use or mention of the Cre/Lox System

  • Tianjin University 2008 (China) – Made use of the CRE/LoxP combination (together with other strategies) to combine DNA and make “Foolproof Plasmid Self-Assembly Systems”.
  • MIT 2006 (USA) – Mention of mutant LoxP sites to prevent inversion of sequences (Lox66 and Lox71)
  • Imperial College 2006 (London) – Biological oscillator by using the CRE/Lox system as a switch by incorporating DNA to prevent downstream transcription. In the end used Quorum Sensing to create a predator – pray system.
  • Paris 2007 (France) – (Synthetic Multicellular Bacterium) Use of CRE/Lox system to influence differentiation in germ line, because it was readily available, largely used and well described. Low concentrations of DAP triggered the transcription of Cre-recombinase (under the influence of DAP-sensitive promoter), which caused the removal of a gene required for bacterial reproduction by site-specific recombination (SSR), and resulted in the activation of a gene for the production of DAP by them. The SSR sites might become a burden.
  • Berkeley 2007 (England) – Registration of recombinase parts (Cre), Bacteriophage P1-derived Cre-Lox.
  • USTC 2008 (China) – made use of Cre to cut out “sender” genes upon receiving a signal from a sender cell and thereby creating a receiver cell.
  • Tsinghua 2008 – use of the Cre/Lox system in their second project, but is unclear why they used it.
  • Caltech 2008 - Wilfred Not Cre/LoxP but it does induce variation in the population
  • Hong kong 2008 Wilfred Look at the overlapping T7 promoters for variation in response

Use or mention of XFP’s

  • Utah State University – use of GFP as a reporter gene to indicate the maximum production level of PHB.
  • UNIPV-Pavia – use of GFP and RFP as reporter genes in electronically based circuit (on/off).
  • UCSF – use of GFP as a reporter gene in DNA silencing by Chromatin.
  • TUDelft – use of different method to produce colors, but results in this area were not very promising (also due to ordered parts from iGEM).
  • Tokyo Tech – use of GFP as a reporter gene in their “coli touch” display experiment.
  • Paris – use of (E)CFP, YFP, GFP and mRFP in the construction of a oscillating time clock project.
  • Newcastle University – use of a XFP as a reporter gene to indicate the amount of increase in POP’s.
  • Minnesota – use of GFP and RFP as reporter genes.
  • Bologna – use of GFP and RFP as reporter genes.

Parts in the Registry of Standard Parts:

Fluorescent protein sequences

  • Workable are the wild-type GFP (and a few mutants), RFP (and cherry version)
  • Not-workable (no info) are YFP and CFP (yellow and cyan), OFP (orange), SBFP2 (blue) and a few mutant proteins.


  • Workable are Cre DNA recombinase, and Hin invertase
  • No info (not-workable) are mutant (altered stop/start codon) Cre versions, and a few other enzymes like integrase.

Recombination sites

  • Workable is the Lox site for recombination
  • No info (not-workable) are lox66 and lox71

Membrane proteins

  • Only a few mentioned in the lists of receptors, transporters, channels, pumps and “other proteins”, maybe 40 in total, but I am not familiar with these names (TLR, Omp).

All of the workable protein sequences are listed as “1 star” in the availability list!!


  • J. Livet et al., Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system, 2007, Nature, Vol. 450, 56-63.
  • J. W. Lichtman, J. Livet & J. R. Sanes, A technicolour approach to the connectome, 2008, Nature Reviews neuroscience, Vol. 9, 417-422.