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A promoter is a part of DNA involved in the regulation of gene transcription by ribosomes. In general ribosomes tend to bind weakly to a strand of DNA until a sutible promoter is encountered and the binding becomes strong.

Different Promoters

In order to find different promoters to induce the different genes here is a list of databases for promoters:

  1. Regtransbase

Copper Induced Promoters

The toxicity of copper is largely due to its tendency to alternate between its cuprous, Cu(I), and cupric, Cu(II), oxidation states, differentiating copper from other trace metals, such as zinc or nickel. Under aerobic conditions, this redox cycling leads to the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals that readily and efficiently damage biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids.(needs a ref.)

  • Mills SD,Lim CK,Cooksey DA. Purification and characterization of CopR, a transcriptional activator protein that binds to a conserved domain (cop box) in copper-inducible promoters of Pseudomonas syringae. Mol. Gen. Genet. 1994 Aug;244(4):341-51.

Abstract: The copper resistance (cop) operon promoter (Pcop) of Pseudomonas syringae is copper-inducible, and requires the regulatory genes copR and copS. Primer extension analysis identified the transcriptional initiation site of Pcop 59 bp 5' to the translational start site of copA.

  • Khunajakr N,Liu CQ,Charoenchai P,Dunn NW. A plasmid-encoded two-component regulatory system involved in copper-inducible transcription in Lactococcus lactis. Gene 1999 Mar;229(1-2):229-35.

Abstract: Two regulatory genes (lcoR and lcoS) were identified from a plasmid-borne lactococcal copper resistance determinant and characterized by transcriptional fusion to the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat). The transcription start site involved in copper induction was mapped by primer extension.

  • Ettema TJ,Brinkman AB,Lamers PP,Kornet NG,de Vos WM,van der Oost J. Molecular characterization of a conserved archaeal copper resistance (cop) gene cluster and its copper-responsive regulator in Sulfolobus solfataricus P2.Microbiology 2006 Jul;152(Pt 7):1969-79.

Abstract: That CopT binds to the copMA promoter at multiple sites, both upstream and downstream of the predicted TATA-BRE site. Copper was found to specifically modulate the affinity of DNA binding by CopT. This study describes a copper-responsive operon in archaea, a new family of archaeal DNA-binding proteins, and supports the idea that this domain plays a prominent role in the archaeal copper response. A model is proposed for copper-responsive transcriptional regulation of the copMA gene cluster.

Arsenicum Induced Promoters


  • Need for specificity towards the wanted metals
  • Usable in E.coli


  1. Nawapan S., Charoenlap N., Charoenwuttitam A., Saenkham P., Mongkolsuk S., and Vattanaviboon P., Functional and expression analyses of the cop operon required for copper resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 2009, J. Bacteriol. doi:10.1128/JB.00384-09