In this "cells in cells" project, we set three subgoals.

Subgoal A --- Liposomes that can penetrate through cell membrane

First subgoal is construction of liposomes that can penetrate through cell membrane and confirming whether they get into cells.

Subgoal B --- In Vitro Protein Import into Prepared Liposomes

Second subgoal is construction of prepared liposomes which can take in mitochondrial proteins from cytoplasm and confirming whether they import proteins in vitro.

Subgoal C --- In Vivo Protein Import into Prepared Liposomes

Third subgoal is introducing prepared liposomes into host cells and confirming whether they take in mitochondrial proteins form cytoplasm in vivo. This subgoal requires both of subgoals above. Nobody knows what happens when this subgoal is achieved.

Future Goals

Well-prepared Liposomes

Construction of double membraned liposomes with all important mitochondrial translocases.

Artificial Mitochondrial Genome

Construction of prepared liposome (or well-prepared liposomes) which have DNA in mitochondrial format.


Reconstruction of chloroplasts in similar methods.